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Lancaster Guidance and Templates (AQ Planning ...

Lancaster City Council  –  05 Jan 17

In collaboration with the Low Emission Partnership, Lancaster City Council has developed Draft Planning Guidance for management of emissions and air quality at development sites. Building on this work, the Partnership has developed design options and templates for other local authorities wishing to adopt a similar approach.

Scope

Lancaster Low Emission Planning Guidance

The guidance encourages developers to support action through the planning system to improve air quality and lower transport emissions. It does so by providing guidelines for treatment of development sites through planning appraisal.

The approach seeks to minimise harmful pollutant emissionsavoid significant impact on local concentrations and protect the public from unacceptable exposure to pollution.  In doing so it tailors assessment and mitigation requirements according to specific site characteristics, which relate both to the nature and also the scale of associated impacts and risk. 

The guidance explains:

  • How to classify a development site in order to streamline its passage through the system;
  • What assessment and mitigation should be considered for a given type of site; and
  • The submissions a developer should make and how these will be considered by the LPA.

 

Guidance Templates for Other Local Authorities

Building on the Draft Guidance for Lancaster, the Low Emission Partnership produced a report for wider Lancashire Authorities, that are considering adopting a similar approach. Three templates have been designed to allow any local authority to quickly prepare working draft guidance, which can be tuned and adjusted. Once drafted, they form the basis for either a local advisory note, or a more formal SPD within the Local Development Framework. 

 

The documents attached (RHS) are as follows:

  1. Lancaster Draft Planning Guidance: Low Emissions and Air Quality Guidance for Development Management (Jan-17)
  2. Report on Planning Guidance Templates and Design Options (May-16), includes a questionnaire to help identify the Local Authority's most likely starting point, overview of templates and options for fine tuning.
  3. Planning Guidance Templates 1-3
  4. Lancaster Guidance for EV Charging Points (Planning Advice Note, Feb-16). Separate document, included here as it is referenced in the Low Emission Planning Guidance.

Harm

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[CSAppraisal]

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Low Emission Partnership (AQ Planning Guidance...

National Case Study  –  18 Jul 16

The Low Emission Partnership has issued new planning guidance which consolidates earlier work and elaborates on the local policy approach and underpinning emission assessment methods and tools.

Scope

Local Policy Guidance for Low Emission Planning: Main Text and Technical Appendices.
Provides a development control tool to encourage developers and agents to support action through the planning system to help improve air quality and lower transport emissions. It is a local guidance draft, which could be used by local authorities as a policy template for low emission planning.

Technical Guidance: EMA-TG (v2.0)
Provides technical guidelines for undertaking emissions assessment for a development site. The method is designed to meet the evolving assessment needs of Local Air Quality and Low Emission Planning Policies.

Emission Assessment Reporting Template: EMA-RB (v2.0) and EMA-SR (v2.0)
Supports use of the Emission Assessment Guidelines above (EMA-TG), by providing an excel template and word document to structure and present summary results.

Examples of site appraisal and emission assessment (Jul 16)
This work demonstrates how the planning guidance can be applied to real planning applications. Anonymised examples of the emission assessment approach are demonstrated in the following case studies on the Low Emission Hub: Finch Manor, Kennedy Drive, Chestnut Heath. Accompanying reports demonstrate the approach towards: (i) Site Classification; and (ii) Reporting and Decisions.

Emission Assessment Tools and Methods (Dec 2016)
Since 2009, a key focus of the Partnership's work has been to quantify transport emissions and damage costs associated with new development. The latest tools and materials link directly to Emission Assessment Guidelines (EMA-TG). They are presented in full on the Toolkit Webpage of on Partnership's website.

Local Planning Policy Appraisal (method and example): Policy Appraisal and 2016 update
Presents the results and conclusions of work to investigate the scale of emissions harm posed by different development sites, and to estimate the potential emissions benefits of low emission mitigation measures. (Note: Damage cost calculations reflect Defra Damage Costs at time of publication. NOX Damage Costs were subsequently revised by Defra in Sept 2015. The report tables were updated in November 2016 to reflect this.)

Harm

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[CSBenefits]

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Chestnut Heath (Emission Assessment and Mitiga...

National Case Study  –  08 Jul 16

This worked example has been developed by the Low Emission Partnership. It illustrates the form and content of an Emissions and Mitigation Statement, which is underpinned by a more detailed Emissions and Mitigation Assessment (see attached), undertaken with reference to the Partnership's assessment guidelines (EMA-TG 2.0). The aim is to assess the transport emission impacts of the development, propose corresponding mitigation and demonstrate that the latter is balanced and proportionate. This example is based upon a real development site, albeit with adjustments and inventions for the purpose of the example (see notes below for details). It does not include a treatment of mitigation costs.

 

Chestnut Heath is a mixed used development of up to 38,000 sqm of laboratory, offices and light manufacturing floorspace (B1), located in a rural area. This study identifies and describes key features of the development, estimates traffic generated by the site and the nature, scale and impact of associated emissions. It then proposes mitigation to reduce these impacts and estimates associated costs and benefits of action.

A package of on-site mitigation is proposed, which combines visitor and staff travel plans with a Low Emission Car Club, in combination with a financial contribution for further compensatory measures. The report concludes that these proposals represent a balanced and proportionate level of mitigation, not least achieving a 76% total mitigation credit, including 13% assured on-site benefits.

Scope

BASE DESIGN

Site location is appropriate for the development and good environmental design principles have been applied. Of note, the proposal includes provision of pedestrian facilities and electric vehicle charging infra-structure. No supplementary design credit is proposed; however this could be revisited should the option of funding the existing bus route be pursued.

Harm

The base fleet calculation estimates total traffic at 66,500,000 km/y, with associated  emissions of 97t NOx and 8t PM10 over the 5 yr impact/benefit period. This represents a combined damage of £795,000 over 5 years. The largest contributors are cars (business - destination), accounting for 59% of emissions and damage costs.

Action

A package of on-site mitigation is proposed, which combines visitor and staff travel plans with an on-site fleet management plan.

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Estimated benefits from these measures correspond to a 13% reduction in NOx, 10% reduction in PM and 13% (£102,000) reduction in overall damage across the benefit period (5 years). An additional financial contribution of £500,000 is proposed towards supplementary emission reduction measures. Combining the latter with the on-site mitigation benefits (£102,000) indicates a total mitigation credit of £602,000 (no design credit was applied). This corresponds to 76% of base fleet impacts.

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

A transport emissions mitigation implementation plan will be prepared to the approval of the LPA prior to commencing work on-site.  Associated measures will be put in place prior to first occupation/use. Progress will be monitored against the plan throughout the benefit period (5 years) with annual progress reports made to the LPA.

Context

Kennedy Drive (Emission Assessment and Mitigat...

National Case Study  –  08 Jul 16

This worked example has been developed by the Low Emission Partnership. It illustrates the form and content of an Emissions and Mitigation Statement, which is underpinned by a more detailed Emissions and Mitigation Assessment (see attached), undertaken with reference to the Partnership's assessment guidelines (EMA-TG 2.0). The aim is to assess the transport emission impacts of the development, propose corresponding mitigation and demonstrate that the latter is balanced and proportionate. This example is based upon a real development site, albeit with adjustments and inventions for the purpose of the example (see notes below for details). It does not include a treatment of mitigation costs.

 

Kennedy Drive is a development of 10,000 sqm supermarket, located within an urban area. This study identifyed and described key features of the development, estimated traffic generated by the site and the nature, scale and impact of associated emissions. It then proposes mitigation to reduce these impacts and estimates associated costs and benefits of action.

A package of on-site mitigation is proposed, which combines customer and staff travel plans with an onsite delivery fleet management plan and site service vehicle LEZ, in combination with a financial contribution for further compensatory measures. The report concludes that these proposals represent a balanced and proportionate level of mitigation, not least achieving a 57% total mitigation credit, including 21% assured on-site benefits.

Scope

BASE DESIGN

Site location is appropriate for the development and good environmental design principles have been applied. Of note, the proposal includes provision of a new pedestrian crossing, electric charging points and cycle parking. No supplementary design credit is proposed.

Harm

The base fleet calculation estimates total traffic at 22,110,000 km/y, with associated  emissions of 35t NOx and 3.8t PM10 over the 5 year impact/benefit period. This represents a combined damage of £1.4m over 5 years. The largest contributors are cars (customers), accounting for 75% NOx, 81% PM10 and 77% damage costs. The second largest contributors are LGV (delivery), accounting for 12% NOX, 8% PM10 and 11% damage costs.

Action

A package of on-site mitigation is proposed, which combines customer and staff travel plans with an on-site delivery fleet management plan and site service vehicle LEZ.

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Estimated benefits from these measures correspond to a 24% reduction in NOx, 11% reduction in PM and 21% (£304,000) reduction in overall damage across the benefit period (5 years). An additional financial contribution of £500,000 is proposed towards supplementary emission reduction measures. Combining the latter with the on-site mitigation benefits (£304,000) indicates a total mitigation credit of £804,000 (no design credit was applied). This corresponds to 57% of base fleet impacts.

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

A transport emissions mitigation implementation plan will be prepared to the approval of the LPA prior to commencing work on-site.  Associated measures will be put in place prior to first occupation/use. Progress will be monitored against the plan throughout the benefit period (5 years) with annual progress reports made to the LPA.

Context

Finch Manor (Emission Assessment and Mitigatio...

National Case Study  –  23 Jun 16

This worked example has been developed by the Low Emission Partnership. It illustrates the form and content of an Emissions and Mitigation Statement, which is underpinned by a more detailed Emissions and Mitigation Assessment (see attached), undertaken with reference to the Partnership's assessment guidelines (EMA-TG 2.0). The aim is to assess the transport emission impacts of the development, propose corresponding mitigation and demonstrate that the latter is balanced and proportionate. This example is based upon a real development site, albeit with adjustments and inventions for the purpose of the example (see notes below for details). It does not include a treatment of mitigation costs.

 

Finch Manor is a development of 128 Residential dwellings, located within an urban area. This study identifies and describes key features of the development, estimates traffic generated by the site and the nature, scale and impact of associated emissions. It then proposes mitigation to reduce these impacts and estimates associated costs and benefits of action.

A package of on-site mitigation is proposed, which combines residents travel plans with a Low Emission Car Club, in combination with a financial contribution for further compensatory measures. The report concludes that these proposals represent a balanced and proportionate level of mitigation, not least achieving a 94% total mitigation credit, including 14% assured on-site benefits.

Scope

BASE DESIGN

Site location is appropriate for the development and good environmental design principles have been applied. Of note, the proposal includes improved pedestrian and cycle links (costing £20,000). There is also a proposal for a contribution towards an extended bus service (£150,000).  In recognition, an associated AQ design credit of £17,000 is proposed. This value represents 10% of total site harm (100% of which, it is noted, will be generated even taking these provisions into account).

Harm

The base fleet calculation estimates total traffic at 2,100,000 km/y, with associated  emissions of 2.9t NOx and 0.3t PM10 over the 5 year impact/benefit period. This represents a combined damage of £119,000. The largest contributors are residents' car journeys, accounting for over 98% of emissions and damage costs.

Action

A package of on-site mitigation is proposed, which combines residents travel plans with a Low Emission Car Club

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Estimated benefits from these measures correspond to a 15% reduction in NOx, 11% reduction in PM and 14% (£16,000) reduction in overall damage across the benefit period (5 years). An additional financial contribution of £75,000 is proposed towards supplementary emission reduction measures. Combining the latter with the design credit (£17,000) and on-site mitigation benefits (£16,000) indicates a total mitigation credit of £108,000. This corresponds to 91% of base fleet impacts.

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

A transport emissions mitigation implementation plan will be prepared to the approval of the LPA prior to commencing work on-site.  Associated measures will be put in place prior to first occupation/use. Progress will be monitored against the plan throughout the benefit period (5 years) with annual progress reports made to the LPA.

Context

Low Emission Hub Guidance and Docs

National Case Study  –  25 Feb 14

Guidance and documents relating to the Low Emission Hub

Scope

Case Study Drafting Guidance –  targeted at case study authors, providing further advice on how to structure a case study, and the type and level of detail that might be appropriate. We expect this guidance to evolve alongside use of the Hub itself.

Hub Snapshots – periodic summaries and overview of the data contained within the hub. The intention is to publish such snapshots on a periodic basis as the site content develops.

Harm

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[CSBenefits]

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[CSAppraisal]

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London Low Emission Zone (LES/LEZ)

Greater London Authority  –  28 Jan 14

London Low Emission Zone. Introduced with the primary objective of improving ambient air quality in London (specifically PM10). Phased introduction depending on type of vehicle affected.

Scope

Harm

Action

Covers most of Greater London. In operation 24 hrs a day, 365 days a year. Uses cameras to identify registration plates. Operators not meeting necessary emissions standards will be fined a daily charge

- Lorries, buses & coaches and heavy specialist vehicles: Euro IV for PM

- Larger vans, minibuses & specialist diesel vehicles: Euro III for PM 

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Context

Heart of East Greenwich (Planning Condition / ...

Royal Borough of Greenwich  –  28 Jan 14

Section 106 agreement for large mixed use development including range of mitigation measures

Scope

Site: Mixed use development comprising community facilities, 600 residential units (50% of which will be affordable), 3,000 sq m of retail units / restaurants, open space, parking and associated servicing facilities (500 sq m of affordable space for business use)

Harm

Action

Contribution of £150,000 towards improvement of transport infrastructure (bus stop improvements and improvements to public transport links)

Provision of car club parking spaces

Travel plan (encourage sustainable travel, targets for reduction of car parking and single car use, targets for increase in staff/residents using sust. transport, survey and monitoring)

Provision of electric charging points for electric cars

Implementation of 'low emission transport scheme' requiring submission and approval by council prior to commencing each phase of work - aims to prohibit the most polluting vehicles, while promoting use of cleanest vehicles (includes monitoring)

Reasonable endeavours' to ensure commercial vehicles meet: 
--- Euro 4 by 2011 (target quota of 50% Euro 5 or better)
--- Euro 5 by 2013 (target quotas for Euro 6 or clean vehicles)
--- 50% Euro 6 by 2018

Reasonable endeavours to incentivise all residential parking to prevent or reduce CO2 emissions

Managed parking to ensure all vehicles are Euro 4, with a requirement that at least 50% are Euro 5 by 2011 and 100% Euro 5 by 2013

Management of construction emissions

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Context

Plymouth Hospitals (Travel plan)

Plymouth City Council  –  28 Jan 14

Plymouth Hospital Travel Plan resulted in a reduction in staff arriving by car (from 90% to 54%). The plan included restricted and charged parking permit allocation, supplemented with improved Public Transport services, discounted Public Transport tickets and promotion of car sharing.

Scope

Harm

Action

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[CSBenefits]

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

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Sefton Procurement Process Guide (Procurement ...

Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council  –  27 Jan 14

Council LES procurement guidance at an advanced stage. Developed 'procurement tool for local authorities' with the Low Emission Partnership.

Scope

Harm

Action

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Context

Mid Devon ECO Stars (Fleet Recognition & Assur...

Mid Devon District Council  –  27 Jan 14

The Mid Devon ECO Stars fleet recognition scheme was the first to be launched outside South Yorkshire and to date is the only one to include a separate scheme specifically aimed at taxi fleets.

Scope

Currently signed up to the scheme are 22 general fleet members operating around 1,007 vehicles and 7 taxi fleet operators responsible for around 46 vehicles.

Harm

Action

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Context

Oxford bus LEZ (LES/LEZ)

Oxford City Council  –  23 Jan 14

Low Emission Zone enforced by a Traffic Regulation Condition (TRC). Buses entering Oxford City Centre need to be at least Euro V from 1 Jan 2014. Requirements were met prior to 2014 via a 'bus qualifying agreement' negotiated between Oxfordshire County Council and the bus companies with the City's support.

Scope

Affects all buses entering Oxford City Centre

Harm

Action

Traffic Regulation Condition enforces a Low Emission Zone. Buses entering the city centre need to be at least Euro V from 1 Jan 2014 (retrofitting is allowed) Bus qualifying agreement (negotiated in advance of LEZ coming into force) also includes: high frequency service, more seats, using fewer high quality double decker vehicles, better information and faster boarding for passengers

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

All buses currently meet Euro 5 emission standard with the exception of those that are eligible for exemptions. The bus qualifying agreement has resulted in a 25% reduction in bus numbers on the high street.

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Noteworthy (Dec 2013, LEP): One of only two examples outside London of a currently active LEZ.  Good practice in relation to working with bus companies and in obtaining a TRC.  Minimal cost to Local Authority, cost impacts are on the bus operators (figures not available)

Recorded some air quality improvements in relation to PM. There are some concerns about primary NO2 emissions. Hourly breaches of the NO2 objective are now being found.  (Oxford City Council has recently obtained funding from DEFRA to investigate this further)

Context

The London Car Club Fleet (Share / Hire)

Carplus  –  23 Jan 14

Since 2007, there has been sustained growth in both car club membership and the geographical coverage of car clubs across London. In 2012/13, the London car club fleet comprised 1843 vehicles, which serviced a membership of approximately 122,300. In total, these members travelled approx. 37,000,000 miles in car club vehicles, in the course of around 1,000,000 separate ‘hires’.

It is estimated that these combined operations have helped remove around 11,000 private cars from the road and avoid the purchasing of a further 22,000. Overall, car club members in London are estimated to have travelled nearly half a billion fewer miles compared to the equivalent GB average. In addition, journeys undertaken in car club vehicles benefit from a fleet which is 100% Euro 5 compliant and emits on average 30% less CO2 than the wider national fleet

Market observers project a potential 10-fold rise in car club membership by 2020.

Scope

Location: London is the largest market in Europe for traditional car clubs and the second largest globally. Coverage now reaches from Enfield in the north to Sutton in the south and from Abbey Wood in the east to Hounslow in the west. Approximately 50% of Londoners have access to a car club car within ten minutes’ walk of where they live.

Organisation: Car clubs in London are provided by several commercial operators. Some boroughs currently have a single operator contract and several boroughs are considering ways to open up the market to allow for more than one operator. Community car clubs don’t currently operate in London, though they may find a future role in outer London. Another development to watch for in the future is the possible emergence of ‘A to B’ type provision.

Membership: Members (122,300), Average use stats (8.2 hires/y, 6.7 hr/hire, 37.8 m/hire, 305 m/y)

Cars (1654, ave. age 1.05y) Type: Diesel (1,369, 82.8%), Petrol (211, 12.8%), PE-Hybrid (71, 4.3%), Electric (3, 0.2%), CO2: Band A (573, 35%), band B/C (983, 59%), Ave. CO2 (110.1 g/CO2), AQ: EU5+ (1,653. 100%), Fleet Ave NOx (127.3 mg/km), Fleet Ave PM10 (0.334 mg/km)

Vans (189)

Harm

Private cars make a significant contribution to air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in London.

Action

Transport for London’s 2008 Car Club Strategy provided the framework for much of the progress achieved to date. Carplus, operators, Transport for London (TfL) and City Hall are now working collaboratively to ensure that, five years on, car clubs are given the renewed strategic direction and support that will allow their identified potential to be realised. Forward thinking policies by City Hall, TfL and Boroughs mixed with ambition and entrepreneurship of private sector operators has given London a leadership position in the global car club market.

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Car clubs help to reduce total ownership of private cars and also members' annual car mileage. Car club vehicles are generally cleaner and more efficient than the wider national fleet. They can also help to expose users to ultra-low emission vehicles, thereby encouraging wider uptake. The Carplus survey reports the following indicators and estimates:

Travel Behaviour
- 11,058 cars removed from road (based on estimate of 6 private cars per car club vehicle, 1843 vehicles)
- 22,116 car sales deferred (based on 12 deferments per car club vehicle, 1843 vehicles)
- 50% fewer car miles by members (member ave. 4,195 m/y compared to the GB ave. 8,430 m/y)
- 518,000,000 fewer car miles by members (i.e. cumulated estimate compared to equiv. GB average)

Vehicle Performance
- The car club fleet in London is almost 100% Euro 5 compliant
- Carbon emissions are on average 31% lower than the UK national fleet
- Car clubs can help introduce EV’s to a wide range of new users

Context

Leeds Econic Waste (Vehicle trials)

Leeds City Council  –  23 Jan 14

In 2007, Leeds City Council compared a bio-methane fuelled Econic waste collection vehicle on two routes for a period of 6 months. This was to determine fuel consumption, usability and reliability. The vehicle was compared against a standard diesel-fuelled Econic (Euro 5) plus a Seddon-Atkinson Euro 3 vehicle operating on the same routes. They recorded up to 0.5 extra mpg by the Bio-Methane fuelled vehicle compared to Diesel, and a CO2 saving of up to 60% over the diesel.

Scope

Harm

Action

Trial of biomethane fuelled Econic waste collection vehicle

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Up to 0.5 extra mpg by the Bio-Methane fuelled vehicle compared to Diesel, and a CO2 saving of up to 60% over the diesel.

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Context

Vanguard development (Planning Condition / Agr...

City of York  –  23 Jan 14

Planning conditions to secure the provision of 15 EV charging points and 15 electric bike charging points. Sec 106 contribution of £20,244 to support local air quality monitoring in the vicinity of the site.

Scope

Site: Development of a new Community Stadium for York plus community facilities (library, crèche, independent living demonstration centre).  The community facilities will be enabled by 30,843sq m of retail and restaurant development to the SE of the stadium known as the 'Vanguard site'.  The development is adjacent to existing large Monks Cross retail park which has two large supermarkets, a small supermarket and a selection of high street shops.

Harm

Proposed development will introduce 1,340 parking spaces on the enabling development and potentially up to 490 spaces for the stadium (400 of these spaces are already had approval as an extension to the adjacent Park & Ride site but have not yet been built by CYC).  The air quality impact assessment undertaken for the development indicated potential increases in concentrations of NO2 and PM10 on roads in the surrounding area but these were of a level unlikely to result in the need to declare any further AQMAs. There are no AQMAs within the immediate vicinity of the site.

Action

Developer required to provide 15 EV charging points, 15 electric bike charging points and £20,244 towards the cost of air quality monitoring in the residential areas likely to experience increase in pollutant concentrations.  A comprehensive travel plan was also required dealing particularly with the management of match day traffic.

CYC officers continue to liaise with the developers to ensure that the EV charging points provided are compatible with the wider EV charging network in York.

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Context

York city wide Low Emission Strategy (LES/LEZ)

City of York  –  23 Jan 14

Overarching Low Emission Strategy (LES) for the City of York (adopted 2012).

Scope

Overarching city wide Low Emission Strategy

Harm

CYC's LES addresses:

- the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2); and

- the need to protect residents from the harmful effects of local air pollutants, especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM). (p.6)

 

CO2 emission reduction targets include:

- reducing CO2 emissions across CYC operations by 25% by 2013

- signatory to FoE campaign to reduce (CYC) CO2 emissions by 40% by 2020

 

An estimated 94-163 people die prematurely in York each year due to poor air quality (Pro rata, based on national estimates). Three air quality management areas have been declared for NO2, where concentrations regularly exceed national air quality objectives. Measures in the LES are intended to improve air quality for the health of the population, the aim being to reach a situation where there are no exceedances of the air quality objectives.

Action

LES Interventions: includes awareness and understanding campaigns, encouraging low emission measures at new developments, low emission vehicle incentives/infrastructure, measures for the council fleet, inward investment and sustainable transport measures.

Delivered to date: Public recharging network in CYC car parks and additional charging points at hotels via Zero Carbon World partnership, ECO Stars scheme, public EV event, funding for electric Park & Ride and other  buses, funding secured for rapid charging facilities, electric council fleet car purchased and large scale switch of council grey fleet trips to car club, LEZ feasibility completed, anti-idling study completed, bus strategy work completed, LES planning measures being obtained via negotiation but no official guidance adopted as yet, hybrid taxi project set up.

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

Objectives: 
The Overall Vision of the LES is 'To transform York into a nationally acclaimed low emission city', with the following features

- Population and business / development community aware of their environmental / health impact and play active role in reducing emissions 

- New development designed to minimise emissions and maximise sustainable transport access

- Rates of walking and cycling comparable to those in exemplar European cities

- Noticeably greater numbers of alternatively fuelled vehicles (electric, gas and hybrid) than other UK cities and widespread eco-driving behaviour

- Well developed low emission vehicle infrastructure 

- Minimised vehicles accessing air quality hotspots and lorries, buses and taxis meeting minimum emission standards and embracing emission reduction technologies

- Lowest emission Council fleet affordable and minimised emissions from procured services

- Local air quality and global warming issues considered and tackled together

- Inward investment by low emission technology providers actively sought, encouraged and supported

- Innovation and investment in infrastructure and services to reduce emissions are actively sought, encouraged and promoted.

- (As a result of the above) no exceedances of air quality limits

 

Quantified LEZ impacts: (emissions and air quality), quantified anti-idling impact (emissions), quantified cleaner bus improvements (emissions) - all currently confidential but have emerging status and likely to be available by end 2014

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

Progress (Dec 2013, York CC): Good progress being made with delivery particularly in relation to EV charging network, cleaner buses, LEZ feasibility, ECO Stars adoption, anti-idling feasibility and fleet improvements.  Progress is regularly reported on http://www.jorair.co.uk

Noteworthy (Dec 2013, LEP): First city level LES in the UK.  Currently investigating  applying different emission standards for buses based on frequency of service - will include requirement for electric buses on some services.  York have also made good progress with EV charging provision in absence of Plugged in Places funding.  The pay as you go public charging network is a novel approach as is work with Zero Carbon World.  Have undertaken a novel approach to LEZ assessment using a coupled Paramics / Phem model

Appraisal Process:
The LES sets out measures to reduce emissions. Further work is ongoing to develop a new Air Quality Action Plan to set targets for delivery of the measures. This will involve:

(1) Collation of baseline data on current emissions and sources of emissions;

(2) Assessment of emission reduction potential of each of the proposed measures;

(3) Setting of emission reduction targets for the proposed measures.

Indicators will include:

- Awareness and understanding [resident surveys]

- Uptake of LE technologies [LE vehicles observed in traffic counts]

- Sustainable travel indicators [via LTP3 reporting]

- LES measures at new developments [no. developments meeting CSH, zero Carbon and BREEAM standards; no. developments submitting travel plans; no. EV charging points on new developments; no. developments incorporating LE technologies; value of developer contributions to wider LES measures]

- EV / gas infrastructure [no. of EV recharging points and gas re-fuelling points available]

- Reduction in emissions from public transport [observed bus and taxi fleet]

- Reduction in emissions from HGVs [observed HGV data]

- Minimising emissions from council buildings [GHG emissions from CYC building]

- Minimising emissions from council fleet [total business mileage; emission standard of vehicles; proportion of LE vehicles used or procured; no. staff undertaken eco-driving / maintenance]

- Encourage LE investment [no. people employed in 'green' jobs; no. low emission industries; no. of LE technology courses / training opportunities]

- Reduce traffic growth and congestion [via LTP3 reporting]

- Increase percentage of freight deliveries by LE vehicles [observed HGV data and Freight Study]

- Local AQ Improvement [Annual and hourly average NO2 concentrations in AQMAs]

Context

Site Assessment

National Case Study  –  03 Jul 13

An invented case study - intended to demonstrate aspects of Hub functionality. 

Scope

Mixed use edge of town development comprising community facilities, retail and residential units. Total area 35,000 m2.

Harm

Without Measures, site impacts for base year (2016) were estimated at: 5,600 t (CO2), 4.7 t (NOx), 0.9t (PM), which translates to an overall social damage of £650,000 per year.

Action

6 broad mitigation options:
1) Electric charge points
2) Low emission service vehicles
3) Zero emission service vehicle shift
4) Home delivery
5) No staff parking
6) All travel plan measures

Benefit

[CSBenefits]

If all measures were applied emission annual emission reduction are estimated at:
2,500t (CO2), 2.0t (NOx )and 0.23KG (PM). This equates to £290,000 SDC avoided or   45% of base impacts. 

Appraisal

[CSAppraisal]

n/a 

Context

N/A

17 result(s) returned